Tulsa!: Biography of The American City


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Other amenities, including higher education, quickly developed.

Civic leaders also initiated negotiations with Henry Kendall College in Muskogee, moving it to Tulsa. Since locating there and changing its name to the University of Tulsa, it has become an integral part of the city. In the first hospital opened. In eighteen entrepreneurs came together to form the Tulsa Street Railway Company, creating the city's first interurban line.

However, construction did not begin until early By the city was served by four systems, allowing not only travel within the community, but also to surrounding towns. Petroleum processing also became important to the economy. In Tulsa had two refineries, the Texaco and the Cosden. At the time, the Cosden Refinery was the largest independent oil refinery in the world.

Owned by Joshua S. Cosden, it began operations in In workers initiated a long and, to Tulsa, divisive strike against this institution, which by that time was called the Mid-Continent Refinery. The conflict lasted well into the s. This facility, located in West Tulsa, operated nonstop into the twenty-first century as the D-X Refinery. As oil continued to be a dominant factor, by Tulsa's population skyrocketed to , From the beginning of the oil boom to the late s most of the great names in petroleum resided in the city.

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The first was the Gilcrease Museum, built to house the extensive Thomas Gilcrease art collection. In Tulsa inherited it, and it is recognized worldwide for its Western art. The other was Philbrook, the private home of Waite Phillips. In Phillips donated his home and art collection to Tulsa. One of the sadder days in Tulsa's history occurred in the summer During eighteen hours between May 31 and June 1 a major outbreak of racial violence exploded, destroying thirty-five to forty square blocks of Tulsa's thriving African American community.

The tragic event left many dead or wounded and thousands more homeless. In the Oklahoma Legislature enacted House Bill , creating the Tulsa Race Riot Commission to reinvestigate and report on the bloodshed and destruction. By Tulsa stood on the cutting edge of the oil industry, which was always looking for new revenue sources. Aviation became one of the ventures that went hand in hand with the oil industry. As far back as Tulsa had a small airfield near a place then called Alsuma.

In Tulsans had accomplished the nation's first interstate shipment of goods by air, from Tulsa to Kansas City. In Tulsa held its first International Oil Exposition to bring oilmen together and to display the current technology. With the exception of , the event occurred every year until the onset of the Great Depression.

The expo remained the state's major petroleum industry gathering, with eighteen shows taking place between its inception in and its close in Other aviation enterprises have also bolstered the local economy. On January 27, , Spartan Aircraft Company opened. On July 3, , city leaders inaugurated the Tulsa Municipal Airport, and the first shipment of mail to Ponca City was made. In Tulsa had four airports, including the McIntyre, H. Wilcox, Garland, and North American Airlines fields, as well as two airplane manufacturers. These included Collier Aircraft, which was located at the Wilcox airport.

Spartan conducted its activities across the street from the new municipal airport. Because of concerns of African-Americans in surrounding communities plotting revenge and launching a counterattack, Tulsa officials required that black residents, who were still in custody, acquire a green card, which only was required if a white employer had promised to keep their employee inside. This policy continued into July as the remaining survivors of the Tulsa Race Riots were required to keep their green cards to ensure that there were no more counterattacks.

When evaluating the prosperity of "Black Wall Street", one angle to take into consideration is this perceived threat to the status quo and how this perceived threat may have eventually led "Black Wall Street" to its ultimate demise.


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For instance, many white residents felt intimidated by the growth and expansion of "Black Wall Street". Not only was Greenwood, Tulsa expanding in population growth but it was also expanding its physical boundaries, which eventually collided with the boundaries of white residents. According to several newspapers and articles at the time, there were reports of hateful letters sent to prominent business leaders within "Black Wall Street", which demanded that they stop overstepping their boundaries into the white segregated portion of Tulsa. Revitalization and preservation efforts in the s and s resulted in tourism initiatives and memorials.

Tulsa, Oklahoma - Wikipedia

The proposed development includes a hotel, baseball stadium, and an expanded mixed-use district. After the Tulsa Race Riots, many white residents had promised to rebuild after the massive destruction, but that did not come to fruition. Instead, many white residents attempted to profit off the destruction and exploit African-Americans by approaching them with offers to purchase their lands for extremely low prices. Some residents attempted to sue the city legally and filed insurance claims against the city government for , but all of those claims were denied by the city government.

People within the African-American community after the Tulsa Race Riot rarely discussed the historical significance of Greenwood after the Tulsa Race Riots because of fear that it may occur again. In , a commission was established to examine recommendations to compensate and support the descendants of the victims of the Tulsa Race Riot. Alfred Brophy, an American legal scholar, outlined four specific reasons why survivors and their descendants should receive full compensation: the damage affected African-American families, the city was culpable, and city leaders acknowledged that they had a moral responsibility to help rebuild the infrastructure after the race riot.

The City of Tulsa submitted an application to the U. The Greenwood Cultural Center, dedicated on October 22, , was created as a tribute to Greenwood's history and as a symbol of hope for the community's future. The Greenwood Cultural Center sponsors and promotes education and cultural events preserving African American heritage. It also provides positive images of North Tulsa to the community, attracting a wide variety of visitors, not only to the center itself, but also to the city of Tulsa as a whole.

As a result, the center may be forced to close its doors.

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John Hope Franklin , son of B. Franklin and a notable historian, attended the groundbreaking ceremony. Attractions include two sculptures and a dozen bronze informational plaques. It is a park primarily designed for education and reflection, and does not contain facilities for sports or other recreation.

Originally funded by the State of Oklahoma, City of Tulsa and private donors, it is now owned by the city and managed by the non-profit corporation, John Hope Franklin Center for Reconciliation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Greenwood, Tulsa. Main article: Tulsa race riot. Oklahoma portal United States portal. Archived from the original on October 26, Retrieved November 13, Washington Builder of a Civilization Emmet J. Scott and Lyman B. The Tuskegee News. Retrieved American Journal of Economics and Sociology.

The Atlantic. October 24, Tulsa World. Archived from the original on 12 October Retrieved 15 February June 25, Archived from the original on 7 October Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Retrieved November 15, Vision Downtown Tulsa Unlimited. Archived from the original on May 2, Land Legacy.

December 25, Archived from the original on March 9, Retrieved September 19, Retrieved December 19, Retrieved January 13, Tulsa Zoo and Living Museum. Retrieved April 15, Walk Score. Archived from the original on January 31, Retrieved May 4, Retrieved January 31, Amy Slanchik, Newson6. Archived from the original on October 28, Oklahoma Climatological Survey. Archived from the original PDF on September 2, Retrieved April 26, City of Tulsa.

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Tulsa, Oklahoma

Retrieved May 8, Federal Emergency Management Agency. September 13, Archived from the original on September 26, Retrieved April 28, National Weather Service.

Watchmen e os distúrbios de Tulsa em 1921 - Nerdologia

Program Data and Monitoring". Tulsa Ozone Alert. Archived from the original on May 28, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 10, Retrieved February 1, Retrieved March 11, August 6, Accessed August 7, Archived from the original on June 2, Retrieved July 2, Archived from the original on April 26, Archived from the original on May 22, New Voices Magazine. Archived from the original on February 19, Archived from the original on March 22, Tulsa Today.

Tulsa!: Biography of The American City Tulsa!: Biography of The American City
Tulsa!: Biography of The American City Tulsa!: Biography of The American City
Tulsa!: Biography of The American City Tulsa!: Biography of The American City
Tulsa!: Biography of The American City Tulsa!: Biography of The American City
Tulsa!: Biography of The American City Tulsa!: Biography of The American City

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